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Piruluk Tan A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT TEACHING STRATEGIES BASED ON TEXT TYPES ON STUDENTS’ SPEAKING COMPETENCY
Tari, Nirmala Padmadewi Ni Nyoman Artini, Luh Putu Language Education Study Program, Postgraduate Program Ganesha University of Education Singaraja, Indonesia e-mail : (tari, padmadewi, artini)@pasca.undiksha.ac.id Abstract This study aimed at comparing the...
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oci takashi THE ROLE OF APPLIED LINGUISTICS ON THE TEACHING
OF READING CLASS
PGRI University of Yogyakarta
Linguistik terapan merupakan subdisiplin linguistik yang diarahkan pada tujuan praktis salah satunya yaitu dalam pengajaran bahasa. Berbagai problematika yang tidak dapat di pecahkan dalam pengajaran bahasa inggris, misalnya membutuhkan kajian linguistik terapan untuk menemukan solusi dari problematika tersebut.
Saat ini, dalam dunia pengajaran para pendidik dan guru masih berorientasi pada metode-metode pengajaran terbaik khususnya 4 skill dalam bahasa inggris (reading, listening, speaking, and writing). Para pendidik dan guru masih beranggapan bahwa pengajaran yang sukses adalah yang mampu mengaplikasikan metode terbaik. Ini merupakan sesuatu yang masih di perdebatkan di kalangan dunia pengajaran.
Artikel ini mengeksplor peran linguistik terapan (applied linguistics) di dalam pengajaran keterampilan membaca (reading). Dari sejumlah penelitian yang di lakukan oleh para ahli bahasa (linguist), maka dapat di simpulkan bahwa linguistik terapan memiliki peran penting dalam pengajaran reading, antara lain: metode pengajaran, materi, prinsip-prinsip pengajaran, serta perlakuan pengajaran yang di sesuaikan dengan kondisi siswa.
Kata Kunci: linguistik terapan, membaca (reading), pengajaran keterampilan membaca
Language is tool of communication. We can communicating with other people by using language. Language can be in the form of music, gestures, signs, etc. Language is important thing for human life. Even the baby born with disability to speak, they still could communicating with the others by gestures or signs. By language we can survive, make interaction with the others, etc. According to Noam Chomsky biologically children have been programmed for language and the develop is same with the other biological functions develop (Lightbown and Spada, 2000: 15). The children not need to be taught the language as when they learn to walk. According to Chomsky, the children language ability is inherent since they born or called as innateness. In the other hand, according to many linguists argued that to learn language can not be separated from the environment. Language can not use without stimulated the environment. Language is the process of habitual in daily interaction.
English in Indonesia as the first foreign language learned, it is different with second language. If second language is learned children after their first language which characterized it is used in social interaction as in national communication and formal communication. Whereas foreign language is language from the other country that not used in social common interaction. It only learned as additional language in the school, so it is difficult to learn because rarely used in daily social interaction. The facts, the mastery in English is the important skill in this information and communication era. This is very determined how we can make interaction globally. However, globalization issues strive for human which have good quality and able to communicating in any kinds of foreign language mainly English as international language. The English skill is very needed to be able to master the science knowledge, wider society, and good carreer. Because most of science knowledge is from western country, English become very important language in the competition of world level. English established as medium language in the used most of people in the world (lingua franca) and has been widespread all over the world. Numbers of country even world learned English as foreign or even second language. Remain the powerful influenced of english that has been used in international communication, parents enrolled their child in international or national school which is used English as medium of instruction. In order that they could understanding what the instruction in products, internet, or magazine informed about. Moreover they could participated in the global competition. English has been become requirement for seeking job, study abroad, international communication language. The widespread of English as international language has been give negative and positive influence for Indonesian students. It is needed contribution from all people to take positive role in using the foreign language as necessity. For example, we only used English in across communication or to understand the paper, magazine, or pamflet informed about.When we communicating with family used Indonesian not English. The portion of using English should be suitable with the condition and situation when and where we should activate it.
In teaching reading, teacher should be able to speak English as native speaker or almost like native speaker. In order that, the students learn it with correct understanding in reading class. Reading is an essential skill for learners of English which is as third language. It is the most important skill to master by the learners to achieve success not only in learning English, but also in any content class in any content class reading English is required. If students could be strengthened their ability in reading skill, they will make greater progress and improvement in all other areas of learning (Nunan, David: 2003; 69). But, in fact most of students did not interest to reading class. The reason is because they feel that reading is a silent activities that boring and not fun. Most of students argued that reading make them tired, not interest, boring. Whereas reading is the important and even the most important skill for learners of English which is as second language. Therefore, this article will explained the role of applied linguistics to solve this problem about:
1. What are the role of applied linguistics on teaching reading class?
2. Which one more important, the method of teaching reading skill or student interest on reading class?
3. How is the teacher method to treat their students which not interest on reading class?
This article focus on the first point, which the extension of teacher role and student role in the process of teaching and learning reading class. On this article, the writer want to explored the role of applied linguistics on the process of teaching reading class where the students as third language learner. The writer interested to take this theme, beacause most or may be almost all students not interest on reading class. Moreover, the teacher faced difficulties in teaching reading class which the students interest are low. By analyze the role of applied linguistics to solve these problem, hoped will find the better method, material, and classroom setting to teach reading which achieve success.
Reading being difficult related to the position of English as foreign language learned by students. In their first language, they still have difficulties in learning Indonesian language. They still confused to catch what the meaning of the text they read. Moreover, to catch the meaning of English text they read in reading class. It is possible that students could understand what the text in English which given by teacher. But, they still could not speaking up what the text about orally. It is very difficult and may frustrating for students to speaking up what have been they read. In this case, the role of teacher and students very determined the success during the teaching and learning process in reading class. Although teacher and students’ role are important in reading class, it can not separated from the classroom setting. The reading teacher may be god in teaching reading, but the students not too interest in reading writtent text. Or may be the students have interest on reading class, because the teacher is fun and motivated in teaching reading but the problem is classroom setting. All of these problem may faced by numbers of teacher and students in the teaching and learning process.
This article hoped give benefits for teacher, especially in teaching reading skill as part of English subject. The teacher hoped get more knowledge in teaching reading, that not emphasize on the methods but also the students as the object. Teachers should have perspective that there are no single best method in teaching, but the way they teach that engage students fun and motivated.
Language is a system, that formed by numbers of component that has pattern constantly that be ruled. The language features as the nature of language is a symbol system in the form of sound, arbitrary, productive, dinamic, vary, and humanistic (Agustina, Leonie and Chaer, Abdul:2004:11). Abdul Chaer (2009:30) in “Psikolinguistik Kajian Teoritik” defined language as a unit system of sound symbol arbitrary which are used by numbers of society to make interaction and self identify. According to the definition, language is built by numbers of subsystem (fonology, syntax, and lexicon subsystem). The symbol arbitrary similar with traffic light system and the other symbol system. The differences that, language symbol is sound which produced by human tools of communication. Arbitrary means that there are no certain rules, only certain agreement or convention. Most of lexicon in language appear arbitrary, for example the word “kuda” ( in Indonesian language). The name of “kuda” for animal which has four leg is the result of social agreement. The name can be different in the other area or even country. For example, in American and British people called that animal as “horse”. Language is productive, it means that with the numbers of finite elements, can be made speech of units which almost indefinitely. As in Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia compiled by W.J.S Purwadarminta Indonesian language only have more or less than 23.000 word; but it can be made millions sentence indefinitely. Language is dinamic, it means that language cannot separated from any possibility change that can change anytime. The changes can take place in any level: phonology, morphology, syntaxis, semantics, and lexicon. In the lexicon level it is usually can be visible. In any time probably there is new vocabulary that appears and die. (Leonie, Agustina and Chaer, Abdul: 2004:13).
That’s why language is called arbitrary, because in different area or country it may has different name to defined things (animal, fruit, flower, etc). According to Ferdinand De Saussure divide language into:
a. Langage ( the common language, as human has language)
b. Langue (certain language, a system about language, for example Javanese language and Indonesian language)
c. Parole ( statement, speech)
Language is the study object of linguistics. Language need to investigated, experimented to get the knowledge of the language objectively. Therefore, in its investigating language study always placed the object of language investigating as language. According to Uhlenbeck (linguistik umum judule..) the main purpose of language study is to get the complete definition of about language tendency in general. The purpose could only with the research in any kinds of language, as the research in the physic forms as the expression of language symptoms. Generally, the purposed of language study are:
a. Practical purpose, study the language for practical purpose for instance, by study the language able to communicating properly, correct and fluent.
b. Aesthetic purpose, oriented to how people could understanding and use the language attractively and interesting. For example, for writing poetry.
c. Filologis purpose, study the language in order to explained things or the language values from culture in the past perspective. Investigating language filologisly can be conducted by investigating manuscripts.
d. Linguistics purpose, study language as the study of scientific object. It is oriented in reveal language tendency objectively. In this case, language placed as the object of study which revealed and investigated.
Reading is the process conducted by the reader to to get the value that wants to delivered by the writer in written form. According to Finochiaro and Bonomo, reading is quote and understanding the definition or meaning in the written text (bab%202.pdf, Kamis, 18 Juni 2015 pukul 11.00). Gilet and Temple stated that reading is visual activity in the form of eyes moving that followed the writtent text, centralization on the word and word cluster, re-observing the words and cluster word to get the comprehension of the written text. (bab%202.pdf, Kamis, 18 Juni 2015 pukul 11.00). According David Nunan, reading is a fluent process of readers combining information from a text and their own background knowledge to build meaning (Nunan, David: 2003: 68). Reading is one of the four skill in English, which also scored in language test. Actually, reading is something that difficult included many things, not only pronounce the written text, but also included visual activity, thinking, psycholinguistics, and metacognitive. While according to Klein, and friends stated the definition of reading include: reading is a process, reading is a strategic, and reading is interactive. Reading is a process, its mean that the information from the text and the reader knowledge, whereas has main role to build the meaning. The effective reader use any kinds of reading strategic suitable with text and context to construct the meaning. Linguistically, reading is a process of decoding reading (decoding process). Decoding process means that, in the reading activity there is effort to connecting written words with the oral language meaning (bab%202.pdf, Kamis, 18 Juni 2015 pukul 11.00). Reading should have purpose, people who have purpose in reading will have better understanding compared to people that do not have purpose. The purposed of reading is to find and get information from written source. It is get through meaning process to the forms displayed. According to meaning, purposed, or intensity and the way to read, Anderson (bab%202.pdf, Kamis, 18 Juni 2015 pukul 11.00) stated numbers of reading purpose:
1. Reading to get the details or facts (reading for detail and fact). It is purposed to find or
to knowing the inventions conducted by the character, to solve the problems faced by the character.
2. Reading to get main ideas (reading for main ideas). Reading to know the topic or
problem in the text.
3. Reading to know the measure or structure, story organization (reading for sequence or
Organization). It is purposed to know parts of the story and the relation between part of the story.
4. Reading for conclude or to read the inference (reading for inference). The reader
expected able to feel what the writer feel.
5. Reading for grouped or classified (reading for classify). This kind of reading is purpose
to find the unusual things about something.
6. Reading to scoring or evaluating (reading to evaluate). It is purpose to find a success
according to certain measurement. It is need carefulness by comparing and re-examined.
7. Reading to compared or contrasted, it is purposed to find how the step, the differences
or the similarity of two things or more.
In the classroom reading activity, teacher should organized the reading purpose by providing specific purpose suitable, or help them to organized the reading purpose by providing reading purpose for the student itself. The reading purpose can be include:
b. Improved high-pitched reading
c. Using the certain strategic
d. Improved the knowledge about certain topic
e. Connecting the new information with the previous information has been knows
f. Get information for oral or written report
g. Confirmed or rejected the prediction
h. Displayed an experiment or applying the information get from a text in other numbers
of different step and study about the text structured.
i. Answer the specific questions.
The reading purpose will influenced the acquisition of reading comprehension. Its mean that more strength the people’s reading purpose, then the people’s ability in reading comprehension will more higher.
In outline, there are two important aspect in reading:
a) Mechanical skill can argued in the lower order, which include:
1) Introducing letter form
2) Introducing linguistics elements (phoneme/grapheme, word, phrase, pattern, clause, sentence, etc)
3) Introducing the relation of spelling pattern and sound (the ability to pronounce writtent material)
4) Reading speed on slow level
b) Comprehension skill, it is on the higher order
This aspect include:
1) Understanding the simple definition (lexical, grammatical, rhetorical)
2) Understanding the significance or meaning ( the writer meaning and purpose, relevance/ culture condition, reader reaction)
3) Evaluation or scoring (content, form)
4) Reading speed which is flexible, easy to adaptable with the condition
(pasca.undiksha.ac.id/media/1224.pdf, Kamis 18 Juni pukul 11.00)
To reach the purpose in mechanical skill, therefore the suitable activity are pitch-pitched reading, reading aloud or oral reading. Whereas for comprehension skills the best suitable activity is silent reading. Reading is a comprehension, therefore every teacher should be aware and comprehend correctly that reading is a complex skill and difficult, which involve the numbers of smaller skills.
According to Wals, applied linguistics is the using of linguist invention by master of language. Whereas Hartmann and Stork stated that applied linguistics is linguistic theory which used for practice purpose.(pasca.undiksha.ac.id/media/1224.pdf, Kamis, 18 Juni pukul 11.00). By many definitions stated scientist, can be conclude that applied linguistics most biased on the teaching of language, it is the applying of theory (linguistics theory), the purpose of applied linguistics is to improved practice tasks which concern to the language. Applied linguistics is linguistics subdiscipline biased for practice purposed, as in the language teaching. Therefore, the teacher role cannot separated from language teaching. Although, there are many factor that determine the success of language teaching, teacher role is most determine.
In language teaching, teacher role is to teach the certain language. To teach certain language teacher teach through main teaching by giving certain material. Language teacher should be has linguistics knowledge, in this case is applied linguistics in order that they able to teach the material for students. Language teacher should be capable in choosing one of numbers linguistics theory more meaningly. The purpose is, students will thorough in language learning. The teacher applied functional and practical method provide by applied linguistics. The teacher treat language as skill, then they could determine the effective teching methos to improved student’s ability in language skill. Stevick (1982) in (pasca.undiksha.ac.id/media/1224.pdf, Kamis, 18 Juni pukul 11.00), argued that teacher duties are involve: develop communication competency, develop linguistics competency, develop personal competency. Howard in James (1981) explain language teacher criteria as follows:
a) Take over all language teaching method and could applying the method in the teaching
and learning process,
b) Mastering the material will be or being taught,
c) Conducted all school activitiy, for example school examination,
d) Mastering all type and scoring procedure,
e) Mastering all type of language exercise,
f) Mastering of class management, for example could settled class noisy,
g) Mastering the technique of individual teaching,
h) Could be determine and mastering the syllabus,
i) Could utilizing the teaching media,
j) Mastering the teaching purpose and the activities to attaining it,
k) Mastering the education techniques.
The relevancy of teacher duties, ideally language teacher is a linguist, language researcher, and the writer of language teaching material. A language teacher should always comprehending and followed the knowledge development they taught. A language teacher should be mastering on linguistics to become a good teacher. Therefore, they should mastering on phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and the other linguistics family as sociolinguitics and psycholinguistics. Therefore, practical function of applied linguistics could help teacher to explain the language symptom they taught. Teacher should not teach the language rule to their students, but it only given to guides the using of language pattern in communication. It is necessary for teacher to teach the language rule analyzed by linguistics concept appears in the using of students language. It necessary to emphasize, in order that they become language profient learners.
The benefits of linguistics theory for language teacher are:
(1) for increasing grade of their profession, linguistic is knowledge which treat language as
object, whereas in teaching language as what is taught. Therefore, teacher need the knowledge and skill on linguistics. If teacher mastering linguistics theory, they could comprehending the language form, the nature of language, language characteristic, the order of the language, and language theory. By mastering these elements, teacher will do their duties better compared to they that not mastering the theory.
(2) theoretical benefits, all science knowledge getting development. Therefore, a language
teacher should always followed the development. A language teacher should always renewing their knowledge, in order to be able answering these questions: what is the theory still adaptable to the knowledge development?, is the new argument has relation to the material they taught?.A language teacher should mastering the linguistics theory, improving their profession by get depth understanding on education knowledge and teachirship. A success teacher is teacher that could conducted teaching learning which is useful. They should have wider knowledge, in the field they taught, education science, and the other knowledge that supporting the teaching and learning process.
(3) practical benefits, a teacher should always following the knowledge development.
Because teacher faced creative, potential, and dinamic students and society. Teacher should always improved their knowledge to keep their profession authority and self esteem. In arrange the material, applied linguistics provide guiding for approach, principle of arranging, arranging technique, material selection, and presentation of organisation.
The role of applied linguistics on the teaching of reading skill is very important. It provide guiding for teacher to understanding linguistics theory, in order that their teaching will achieve success by giving benefits for students. Moreover, it benefits to determine the teaching method, material grading, and grammatical on language teaching. To be able be a good teacher, linguistics provide knowledge to applied in teaching learning process without left the purpose of the teaching itself. In applied linguistics, teacher could mastering their knowledge on linguistics theory to applied on reading class, applied the reading method that suitable to the reading material and students need, the selection of reading material that give benefits for students by applied linguistics theory, and the using of grammatical using on communication the examination of reading test, and give teacher a guideline what should and should not they do on teaching and learning reading process. By applyng the consideration provide on linguistics theory, it will make the teaching achieve success.
3. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
In summarize, the role of applied linguitics is very important. It provide guiding about method can be applied on teaching reading class, a good reading material suitable to give, the grammatical using on examination and communication, the selection of reading material as guideline on applied linguistics, and give guideline for teacher what should and should not do on teaching and learning process.
The suggestion for language teachers, always followed the language development in order that could improve their language ability that benefits on the language teaching. They should understand how to teach language as an object. Therefore, teacher as basic role should be able applying a good method on their teaching. By conducted these step, it is possible for teacher to achieve success on their teaching.
Davies, Alan.2007. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics From Practice to the Theory.
Second edition. Edinburg: Edinburg University Press.
Chaer, Abdul. 2009. Psikolinguistik Kajian Teoritik. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
pasca.undiksha.ac.id/media/1224.pdf, Kamis, 18 Juni pukul 11.00
Pateda, Mansoer. 1991. Linguistik Terapan. Flores: Nusa Indah.
Pateda, Mansoer. 1991. Linguistik Terapan. Yogyakarta: Nusa Indah.
Chaer, Abdul. 1988. Tata Bahasa Praktis Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Bharatara
Nunan, David. 2003. Practical English Language Teaching, First Edition. New York: The
Spada Nina and Pasty M. Lightbown. 2000. How Languages are Learned. New York:
Oxford University Press.
Mustafa, Bacharudin.2007. Buku Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini, unpublish.
Leonie, Agustina and Chaer, Abdul. 2004. Sosiolinguistik, edisi revisi. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
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EED Undiksha SINGARAJA. EED of Undiksha had a warm visit from English Department of Sanata Dharma University, Jogjakarta. Seen as a potential collaborative partner institution, EED is happy to welcome the representatives.
Both departments shared programs, issues and ideas. This is a good opportunity to learn from each University.
Some members from both departments have known each other but we haven’t had a chance to get introduced as a working unit in an institution. Hopefully, EED can pay a visit back to Sanata Dharma in the future.
Read the news and see some photos at http://eed.undiksha.ac.id/?p=635. The visit is also available on EED’s The Splash Magazine: https://thesplashonline.wordpress.com/2015/01/28/great-sharing-time-with-sanata-dharma-university/
Thank you for coming and we wish all the best!
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